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MathGroup Archive 1996

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Re: multinomials: a programming question

  • To: mathgroup at smc.vnet.net
  • Subject: [mg3961] Re: multinomials: a programming question
  • From: danl (Daniel Lichtblau)
  • Date: Mon, 13 May 1996 01:46:02 -0400
  • Organization: Wolfram Research, Inc.
  • Sender: owner-wri-mathgroup at wolfram.com

In article <4menll$jva at dragonfly.wolfram.com> Jack Goldberg  
<jackgold at admin.lsa.umich.edu> writes:
> Hello Mma users,
> 
> I am concerned about some limitations in the Sum command.
> Here is the example that motivated this message.  Although 
> Mma can easily expand  (a+b+c)^n  for any specific non-negative 
> choice of integer  n,  I need to write the trinomial expansion 
> out in terms of Sum.  Something like this:
> 
> tri[a_,b_,c_,n_] := Sum[Multinomial[i,j,k]*a^i*b^j*c*k, ???]
> where  i+j+k = n.  (Multinomial is a built-in function.)
> 
> The problem is with the iterator(s).  The condition  i+j+k =  n
> is causing me great difficulty.  What would be nice is a solution
> that works in the general multinomial case, but perhaps that is asking 
> too much - I would be happy for the trinomial expansion.
> 
> The more general issue here is this:  Many sums in mathematics  (most 
> more important than the above trivial problem) are indexed over more
> complicated sets than allowed by the syntax of Sum.  For example,
> open any book on number theory - I opened my copy of An Introduction 
> To The Theory of Numbers, I. Niven et. al. - and found the Mobius 
> inversion formula, pg 194, part 
> of which reads (subject to the limitation of my keyboard)
> 
> The sum over all divisors  d  of  n  of the product of  
> mu(d)*F(n/d) ... 
> 
> Instead of having to recast this remarkable formula into terms 
> understandable by Sum, wouldn't it be nice to have the set over 
> which the sum is taken be given as the iterator.  Then my trinomial 
> problem would be solved like this:
> 
> tri[a_,b_,c_,n_] := Sum["as above", {i+j+k=n}]
> 
> Your thoughts are more than welcome!
> 
> Jack Goldberg
> University of Michigan
> 
> 

  This is along the lines of what you want, for the simple case of  
trinomials.

In[72]:= tri[a_,b_,c_,n_] := Sum[Multinomial[i,j,n-i-j]*a^i*b^j*c^(n-i-j),
        {i, 0, n}, {j, 0, n-i}]
        
In[73]:= tri[a,b,c,4]

          4      3        2  2        3    4      3         2
Out[73]= a  + 4 a  b + 6 a  b  + 4 a b  + b  + 4 a  c + 12 a  b c +

           2        3        2  2           2      2  2        3        3     
4
>    12 a b  c + 4 b  c + 6 a  c  + 12 a b c  + 6 b  c  + 4 a c  + 4 b c   
+ c


  For the more general case I believe the fragment below is correct.

In[114]:= multinom[n_Integer, x___] := Module[
        {len=Length[{x}], jj, indices, xx={x}, expons, iterators}, 
        indices = Array[jj, {len-1}];
        expons = {Apply[Sequence,indices], n-Apply[Plus,indices]};
        iterators = Table[{indices[[j]], 0, n-Apply[Plus, Take[indices,  
j-1]]},
          {j, len-1}];
        Sum[Multinomial[Apply[Sequence,expons]] * Apply[Times, xx^expons],
          Evaluate[Apply[Sequence, iterators]]]
        ]
                                                                                
In[115]:= multinom[3, w, x, y, z]

           3      2          2    3      2                  2          2
Out[115]= w  + 3 w  x + 3 w x  + x  + 3 w  y + 6 w x y + 3 x  y + 3 w y  + 
 
          2    3      2                  2                            2
>    3 x y  + y  + 3 w  z + 6 w x z + 3 x  z + 6 w y z + 6 x y z + 3 y  z  
+ 
 
          2        2        2    3
>    3 w z  + 3 x z  + 3 y z  + z


Daniel Lichtblau
Wolfram Research, Inc.
danl at wolfram.com


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