Re: Integration Problems

• To: mathgroup at smc.vnet.net
• Subject: [mg13929] Re: Integration Problems
• From: "Allan Hayes" <hay at haystack.demon.cc.uk>
• Date: Tue, 8 Sep 1998 02:52:28 -0400
• References: <6svrm3\$s40@smc.vnet.net>
• Sender: owner-wri-mathgroup at wolfram.com

```Georgios Kotsalis wrote in message <6svrm3\$s40 at smc.vnet.net>...
>Dear Sirs ,
>
>while performing the following evaluation, i received an unexpected
>result:
>
>1.) W1[x_,t_]:=
>    q[2,1][t] (Sin[4.73 x] - Cos[4.73 x] + Exp[-4.73 x] + Exp[-4.73
>(1-x)]);
>
>2.) W2[x_,t_]:=Evaluate[(D[W1[x,t],{x,2} ])^2]
>
>3.) Integrate[W2[x,t],{x,0,1}]
>
>
>(509.399 -2.922295 X 10^-5 I) q[2,1][t]^2
>
>Could you please tell me, why does an imaginary part arise though the
>function
>that is being integrated is real ?
>

Georgios:
It comes from internal inexact computations thet work with complex
forms. You can get rid of the small complex part by using Chop. I also
tried to  integrate the exact form, with 4.73 replaced by 473/100, but
I had to turn off after quite a long time; however the answer came out
quite quickly when I expanded the integrand and integrated the summands
separately (this trick is often useful); also the inexact form treated
this way came out as real:

W1[x_,t_]:=
q[2,1][t] (Sin[4.73 x] - Cos[4.73 x] + Exp[-4.73 x] + Exp[-4.73 (1-x)]);
W2[x_,t_]=D[W1[x,t],{x,2} ]^2;

Integrate[W2[x,t],{x,0,1}]

-15              2 (509.399 + 1.46147 10    I) q[2,
1][t]

Chop[%]
Out[4]=
2
509.399 q[2, 1][t]

(2) Expanded inexact form
Integrate[#,{x,0,1}]&/@Expand[W2[x,t]]

2
509.399 q[2, 1][t]

(3) Expanded exact form

Integrate[#,{x,0,1}]&/@Expand[Rationalize[W2[x,t]]]

2                          2
105823817 q[2, 1][t]     39472283741 q[2, 1][t]
-(---------------------) + ----------------------- +
473/50                    473/100
1000000 E                50000000 E

473 2           2
105823817 Cos[---]  q[2, 1][t]
100
------------------------------- +
1000000

473        473             2
105823817 (Cos[---] - Sin[---]) q[2, 1][t]
100        100
------------------------------------------- -
1000000

473        473             2
105823817 (Cos[---] - Sin[---]) q[2, 1][t]
100        100
------------------------------------------- +
473/100
1000000 E

473        473             2
105823817 (Cos[---] + Sin[---]) q[2, 1][t]
100        100
------------------------------------------- +
1000000

473        473             2
105823817 (Cos[---] + Sin[---]) q[2, 1][t]
100        100
------------------------------------------- +
473/100
1000000 E

473       473             2
105823817 (--- - Sin[---]) q[2, 1][t]
50        50
-------------------------------------- +
4000000

473       473             2
105823817 (--- + Sin[---]) q[2, 1][t]
50        50
--------------------------------------
4000000

Simplify:

Simplify[%]
473/100        473/50 (105823817 (-100 + 746 E
+ 523 E       +

473/50     473        473/50     473
200 E       Cos[---] + 50 E       Cos[---] +
100                   50

473/100     473             2
200 E        Sin[---]) q[2, 1][t] ) /
100

473/50
(100000000 E      )

Numerical value

N[%]

2
509.399 q[2., 1.][t]

-------------------------------------------------------------
Allan Hayes
Training and Consulting
Leicester UK
http://www.haystack.demon.co.uk
hay at haystack.demon.co.uk
voice: +44 (0)116 271 4198
fax: +44(0)116 271 8642

```

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