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Re: What is the difference between z[x_]:= D[y[x],x] and z[x_]:=y'[x]?
*To*: mathgroup at smc.vnet.net
*Subject*: [mg27467] Re: What is the difference between z[x_]:= D[y[x],x] and z[x_]:=y'[x]?
*From*: "Allan Hayes" <hay at haystack.demon.co.uk>
*Date*: Tue, 27 Feb 2001 00:37:20 -0500 (EST)
*References*: <97cdfc$d6m@smc.vnet.net>
*Sender*: owner-wri-mathgroup at wolfram.com
ClearAll["`*"]
Q1})
> I want to know the difference between
> z[x_]:=D[y[x],x] and z[x_]:=y'[x]
This is a a problem that often hits students hard when they start
multivariable calculus..
The underlying difference is between differentiating a formula with respect
to a variable:
D[x^2 y^3, {x,2},{y,1}]
6*y^2
and differentiating a function with respect to a position,or slot.
Derivative[2,1][#1^2 #2^3&]
6*#2^2 &
%[x,y]
6*y^2
A variant of the latter is
Derivative[2,1][Function[{x,y}, x^2 y^3]]
Function[{x, y}, 6*y^2]
%[x,y]
6*y^2
Let's return to the original question.
Define a function, different notation,
f[x_]:= Sin[t x ]
The following give the same result
D[f[x],x]
t*Cos[t*x]
f'[x]
t*Cos[t*x]
But the evaluation steps are very different:
D[f[x],x]
D[Sin[t x],x]
t Cos[t x]
f'[x]
Derivative[f][x]
Derivative[1][Sin[t #1]&],{1}[x] (*derivative of a pure functon for f with
respect to slot 1*)
Evaluate[D[Sin[t #1],#1]]&[x]
a Cos[a#]&[x]
The derivative of a function can be calculated independently:
f'
t*Cos[t*#1] &
%[x]
t*Cos[t*x]
If we give x value then differences show up:
x=a;
D[f[x],x]
t*Cos[a*t]
The value of x has already been used above.
But with
f'
t*Cos[t*#1] &
the value of x has not been used.
Of course, if we find the value of this function at x, before redefining or
clearing x then this difference seems innocuous
%[x]
t*Cos[a*t]
But a more serious difference shows up with a numerical value for x
x=7;
D[f[x],x]
General::ivar: 7 is not a valid variable.
D[Sin[7*t], 7]
Whereas
f'[x]
t*Cos[7*t]
%[x]
(t*Cos[7*t])[7]
Q2) Two routines
Clear["`*"]
(r1[t_]=93/(1+0.12*Cos[3*t]);
d1[t_]:=ArcTan[r1[t]/D[r1[t],t]];
Block[{t},u[t_]:=If[(Pi/3\[GreaterEqual]t>0),d1[t]]];)
u[0.5]
General::ivar: 0.5 is not a valid variable.
ArcTan[92.21721745103183/D[92.21721745103183, 0.5]]
Above, Mathematica stores
?d1
Global`d1
d1[t_] := ArcTan[r1[t]/D[r1[t], t]]
So that in finding u[0.5 ] it tries to differentiate with respect to the
real number 0.5
But after
(r1[t_]=93/(1+0.12*Cos[3*t]);
d1[t_]=ArcTan[r1[t]/D[r1[t],t]];
Block[{t},u[t_]:=If[(Pi/3\[GreaterEqual]t>0),d1[t]]];)
it stores
?d1
Global`d1
d1[t_] = ArcTan[2.777777777777778*(1 + 0.12*Cos[3*t])*
Csc[3*t]]
So that differentiation with respect to a 0.5 is avoided in calculating
u[0.5]
1.22872
--
Allan
---------------------
Allan Hayes
Mathematica Training and Consulting
Leicester UK
www.haystack.demon.co.uk
hay at haystack.demon.co.uk
Voice: +44 (0)116 271 4198
Fax: +44 (0)870 164 0565
"liwen liwen" <gzgear at yahoo.com> wrote in message
news:97cdfc$d6m at smc.vnet.net...
> Dear friends,
> How are you!
> I want to know the difference between z[x_]:=
> D[y[x],x] and z[x_]:=y'[x].
>
> Also,I want to why I can not find the answer for the
> u[0.5] by the following routine:
>
> (r1[t_] = 93/(1 + 0.12*Cos[3*t]);
> d1[t_] := ArcTan[r1[t]/D[r1[t], t]];
> Block[{t}, u[t_] := If[(Pi/3 >= t > 0), d1[t]]];
> )
>
> u[0.5]
> General::"ivar": "\!\(0.5`\) is not a valid variable."
>
> But it is available by the following routine:
>
> (r1[t_] = 93/(1 + 0.12*Cos[3*t]);
> d1[t_] = ArcTan[r1[t]/D[r1[t], t]];
> Block[{t}, u[t_] := If[(Pi/3 >= t > 0), d1[t]]];
> )
>
> u[0.5]
> 1.22872
> (* ------------------------ *)
>
> Please help.
>
> Bets Regards,
>
>
> Liwen 2/26/2001
>
> E-mail: gzgear at yahoo.com
>
> __________________________________________________
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