Roots of a Jacobi polynomial

*To*: mathgroup at smc.vnet.net*Subject*: [mg120503] Roots of a Jacobi polynomial*From*: Jacopo Bertolotti <J.Bertolotti at utwente.nl>*Date*: Tue, 26 Jul 2011 07:07:46 -0400 (EDT)*Delivered-to*: l-mathgroup@mail-archive0.wolfram.com

Dear MathGroup, Mathematica implements Jacobi polynomials as JacobiP[n,a,b,x] where n is the order of the polynomial. As it can be checked plotting it a Jacobi polynomial has n real roots in the interval [-1,1] and it goes rapidly to infinity outside this interval (at least when both a and b are >-1). The problem arise when you try to find the roots of such a polynomial for a relatively high value of n. As an example the command NSolve[JacobiP[20, -0.5, -0.5, x] == 0, x] correctly returns {{x -> -0.99702}, {x -> -0.972111}, {x -> -0.92418}, {x -> -0.852398}, {x -> -0.760555}, {x -> -0.649375}, {x -> -0.522529}, {x -> -0.382672}, {x -> -0.233449}, {x -> -0.0784582}, {x -> 0.0784591}, {x -> 0.233445}, {x -> 0.382684}, {x -> 0.522504}, {x -> 0.649423}, {x -> 0.760466}, {x -> 0.852539}, {x -> 0.924002}, {x -> 0.972267}, {x -> 0.996958}} while NSolve[JacobiP[25, -0.5, -0.5, x] == 0, x] gives {{x -> -1.01869}, {x -> -0.979859 - 0.0479527 I}, {x -> -0.979859 + 0.0479527 I}, {x -> -0.870962 - 0.070991 I}, {x -> -0.870962 + 0.070991 I}, {x -> -0.71378 - 0.0505783 I}, {x -> -0.71378 + 0.0505783 I}, {x -> -0.571283}, {x -> -0.486396}, {x -> -0.367829}, {x -> -0.248377}, {x -> -0.125513}, {x -> -0.0000434329}, {x -> 0.125442}, {x -> 0.2489}, {x -> 0.365644}, {x -> 0.496977}, {x -> 0.555743}, {x -> 0.717741- 0.0573399 I}, {x -> 0.717741+ 0.0573399 I}, {x -> 0.87423- 0.0652273 I}, {x -> 0.87423+ 0.0652273 I}, {x -> 0.977876- 0.0422422 I}, {x -> 0.977876+ 0.0422422 I}, {x -> 1.01494}} i.e. both complex roots and roots outside the [-1,1] interval. Substituting any of these values back into the polynomial easily show that these values are not roots at all. Also notice that using the command Root (e.g. Sort@Table[Root[JacobiP[25, -0.5, -0.5, x], i], {i, 1, 25}]) gives different but still wrong results. On a related note: NIntegrate sometimes gives wrong results when integrating function of the form (1-x)^a (1+x)^b f[x] and I feel this might related to the Gauss-Jacobi quadrature failing to retrieve the correct roots of a Jacobi polynomial. Do anyone have a solution for that? Thank you Jacopo

**Follow-Ups**:**Re: Roots of a Jacobi polynomial***From:*Daniel Lichtblau <danl@wolfram.com>