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MathGroup Archive 1999

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RE: Kronecker product of matrices

  • To: mathgroup at
  • Subject: [mg18502] RE: [mg18429] Kronecker product of matrices
  • From: "Ersek, Ted R" <ErsekTR at>
  • Date: Wed, 7 Jul 1999 23:08:53 -0400
  • Sender: owner-wri-mathgroup at

Kostas Oikonomou  wrote:
Is there a simple way to make Outer[Times,A,B] produce the Kronecker
product of A and B?  What I mean is that if A is nxn and B mxm, Outer
produces a block form, instead of a plain (mn)x(mn) matrix.

The concept of KroneckerProduct was used in a course I took on Kalman
Filtes.  In that course  it was defined as follows:

  Given matrices A and B 
  KroneckerProduct[A,B] is the tensor 
  produced by multiplying each element 
  of (A) by the matrix (B).

If this is the definition you need the oneliner below will do it.  I don't
see how it can be done with Outer.
KroneckerProduct[a_?MatrixQ,b_?MatrixQ]:=Map[# b&, a, {-1}]

Now for a small example.



  {{a11 b11,a11 b12},{a11 b21,a11 b22}},
  {{a12 b11,a12 b12},{a12 b21,a12 b22}}},
  {{{a21 b11,a21 b12},{a21 b21,a21 b22}},
  {{a22 b11,a22 b12},{a22 b21,a22 b22}}

Ted Ersek

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