UnitStep and Simplify

*To*: mathgroup at smc.vnet.net*Subject*: [mg19980] UnitStep and Simplify*From*: Jack Goldberg <jackgold at math.lsa.umich.edu>*Date*: Thu, 23 Sep 1999 23:26:26 -0400*Sender*: owner-wri-mathgroup at wolfram.com

Hi Group, I'm happy to see that UnitStep has moved from the "AddOns" to the "BuiltIns". This was long overdue and, at least for me, a significant step - so to speak. Having said that let me add a mild criticism and what I think is an improvement to the present situation. I think the UnitStep[x] should have been defined as UnitStep[x,0] and UnitStep[x-a] as UnitStep[x,a]. This is a small point but after experimenting for years (literally!) I came to the conclusion that UnitStep ought to be a function of two variables, the second variable the point at which the function jumps. But, in any case, it is not hard to convert back and forth by replacement rules. A more serious issue is the lack of a real simplifier for complicated functions of UnitStep. I provide this also. So here goes. (Suggestions, comments and praises are welcome!) First let us define Step[_,_] as the function Mathematica should have defined! :-). Step[x_,a_?NumericQ] /; x<a :=0 Step[x_,a_?NumericQ] /; x>=a := 1 Now a new function which simplifies functions of Step. Later on I provide an explanation. StepSimplify[f_,x_] /; MemberQ[f,_Step,{0,-1}] := Module[ {brkpts,A0,line1}, brkpts = Cases[f,Step[x,a_]->a,{0,-1}]//Union; A0 = f - (f/. Step[x,a_]->0); line1 = Fold[(#1-(#1/.Step[x,a_] ->Step[#2,a])Step[x,#2)Step[x,#2])&, A0,bkpts]; f-line1 ] Try it on some simple examples. Say, ex1 = (x Step[x,1]-Step[x,2])^2, ex2 = Cos[Step[x,0], ex3 = Sqrt[1+Step[x,1]*Step[x,2]-Step[x,3]]. Now try FullSimplify! The idea behind the code given in StepSimplify is this: Supposing that f contains various Step functions say Step[x,0], Step[x,-1] and Step[x,1]. I assert that f may be expanded as follows (1) f = A[x] + B[x]* Step[x,-1] + C[x]*Step[x,0] + D[x]*Step[x,1] (and this expansion is unique if f has certain "reasonable" properties) where A[x], B[x] etc. does not contain any Step[x,_]. (2) brkpts (breakpoints) gives the list of jumps due to the Step functions. (3) A0 simply forms A0 = f-A[x] by replacing all Step's in (1) by zero. (4) line1 uses the iterated nature of (1) to obtain B[x], C[x] and D[x] in turn. For example, to obtain B[x] we take f-A[x] and set the arguments of all steps to x=-1 (the first entry in brkpts). All Steps, Step[x,a], a>-1 vanish and Step[-1,-1]->1. It then follows that we have B[x]. We form f-A[x]-B[x] Step[x,-1] to set up the Fold function to find C[x], etc. (5) I think I need {0,-1} in both MemberQ and Cases to capture the trivial case f=Step[x,a]. Also, Union was used both to order the brkpts (breakpoints) and to remove repeats. Ordering seems essential to the scheme and this is one minor reason I prefer Step[x,a] to UnitStep[x-a]. By the way, it also simplifies correctly, Step[Step[x,a],b] and replaces g[x] Step[x,a] + h[x] Step[x,a] by (g[x]+h[x])Step[x,a], a task which I found required some vary careful programming, particularly if Expand is used to simplify the final coefficients of each Step. Again, feedback is appreciated and if I am correct in my statements about StepSimplify, perhaps someone could suggest improvements in the code or alternatives. By the way, FullSimplify does a litte simplification on simples expressions containing UnitStep but is woefully inadequate most cases. Jack

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