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Re: Needs[] and <<

  • To: mathgroup at
  • Subject: [mg23077] Re: Needs[] and <<
  • From: Murray Eisenberg <murray at>
  • Date: Sat, 15 Apr 2000 03:00:34 -0400 (EDT)
  • Organization: Mathematics & Statistics, Univ. of Mass./Amherst
  • References: <8d3qq8$>
  • Sender: owner-wri-mathgroup at

<< is a special input form for Get.

<<name reads in a file, evaluating each expression in it, and returning
the last one. 

Needs["context`", "file"] loads file if the specified context is not
already in $Packages. 

But you probably knew that difference.  As to reasons The Book uses the
first rather than the second, I can only speculate.  Shorter to type,
for one; does no harm (except for some wasted time), for another.

Hans Friedrich Steffani wrote:
> Why does the examples in the Mathematica book say
> << Graphics`Graphics`
> instead of
> Needs["Graphics`Graphics`"]
> ?
> Hans Friedrich Steffani
> --
> Hans Friedrich Steffani
> Institut fuer Elektrische Maschinen und Antriebe, TU Chemnitz
> mailto:hans.steffani at

Murray Eisenberg                     murray at
Mathematics & Statistics Dept.       phone 413 549-1020 (H)
Univ. of Massachusetts                     413 545-2859 (W)
Amherst, MA 01003-4515

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