Re: piecewice pdf, problems with cdf

• To: mathgroup at smc.vnet.net
• Subject: [mg105374] Re: [mg105365] piecewice pdf, problems with cdf
• From: DrMajorBob <btreat1 at austin.rr.com>
• Date: Mon, 30 Nov 2009 06:10:16 -0500 (EST)
• References: <200911291012.FAA16385@smc.vnet.net>
• Reply-to: drmajorbob at yahoo.com

```Substitute this in the second example:

Clear[f, tmp, x, cdf]
tmp[x_] =
UnitStep[x + 2] (Sqrt[2] + Cos@x) + UnitStep[x - 3] Sin@x +
UnitStep[x - 5] Log@x - UnitStep[x - 10] Log@x;
f[x_] = tmp@x/Integrate[tmp@v, {v, -2, 10}]
Plot[f@v, {v, -3, 10}]

I'm just trying to make it zero before -2 and always non-negative.

Bobby

On Sun, 29 Nov 2009 23:20:53 -0600, DrMajorBob <btreat1 at austin.rr.com>
wrote:

> I didn't normalize that correctly and it's a poor example when plotted,
> so here's a slightly different example:
>
> Clear[f, tmp, x, cdf]
> tmp[x_] =
>    Sqrt[2] + UnitStep[x + 2] Cos@x + UnitStep[x - 3] Sin@x +
>     UnitStep[x - 5] Exp[x - 7] - UnitStep[x - 10] Exp[x - 7];
> f[x_] = tmp@x/Integrate[tmp@v, {v, -2, 10}];
> cdf[x_] = Integrate[f@v, {v, -3, x}];
> Plot[{f@x, cdf@x}, {x, -3, 11}, PlotRange -> All,
>   AxesOrigin -> {0, 0}]
>
> This won't do for every problem, however. For instance:
>
> Clear[f, tmp, x, cdf]
> tmp[x_] =
>    Sqrt[2] + UnitStep[x + 2] Cos@x + UnitStep[x - 3] Sin@x +
>     UnitStep[x - 5] Log@x - UnitStep[x - 10] Log@x;
> f[x_] = tmp@x/Integrate[tmp@v, {v, -2, 10}]
> Plot[f@v, {v, -3, 10}]
>
> (Sqrt[2] - Log[x] UnitStep[-10 + x] + Log[x] UnitStep[-5 + x] +
>     Sin[x] UnitStep[-3 + x] + Cos[x] UnitStep[2 + x])/(-5 +
>     12 Sqrt[2] + Cos[3] - Cos[10] + 5 Log[20] + Sin[2] + Sin[10])
>
> So far so good, but Integrate can't do the next step!
>
> You could use NIntegrate in theory, but it's too slow in a Plot, as in
> your original code.
>
> NDSolve does the trick instead:
>
> Clear[cdf]
> cdf[x_] /; x <= -2 = 0;
> cdf[x_] /; x >= 10 = 1;
> cdf[x_] =
>    g[x] /. First@NDSolve[{g'[x] == f@x, g[-2] == 0}, g[x], {x, -2, 10}];
> Plot[{f@x, cdf@x}, {x, -2, 10}, PlotRange -> All,
>   AxesOrigin -> {0, 0}]
>
> If the first Integrate (used to normalize "tmp") happens to fail, you
> can try NIntegrate, since it's only calculated once.
>
> NIntegrate[tmp@v, {v, -2, 10}]
>
> 27.1636
>
> Bobby
>
> On Sun, 29 Nov 2009 21:32:04 -0600, DrMajorBob <btreat1 at austin.rr.com>
> wrote:
>
>> I really meant to post this solution:
>>
>> Clear[x, f1, cdf]
>> f1[x_] = Piecewise[{{x^2/9, 0 <= x <= 3}}];
>> cdf[x_?Negative] = 0;
>> cdf[x_] /; x >= 3 = 1;
>> cdf[x_] = Assuming[0 < x < 3, Integrate[f1@v, {v, -Infinity, x}]]
>> Plot[cdf@x, {x, -5, 5}, PlotRange -> All]
>>
>> If there are many pieces, UnitStep is your friend. For instance, here's
>> a function that changes at -2, +3, +5, and +10, where I start with
>> something arbitrary and normalize by dividing by the integral:
>>
>> Clear[f, tmp, x, cdf]
>> tmp[x_] =
>>    UnitStep[x + 2] Sin@x + UnitStep[x - 3] Cos@x +
>>     UnitStep[x - 5] Exp@x - UnitStep[x - 10] Exp@x;
>> f[x_] = tmp@x/Integrate[tmp@v, {v, 0, 10}]
>> cdf[x_] = Integrate[f@v, {v, 0, x}]
>>
>> Integrate is a SYMBOLIC solver, so it's inherently limited. It doesn't
>> understand functions built with If.
>>
>> Bobby
>>
>> Plot[cdf@x, {x, -3, 11}, PlotRange -> All]
>>
>> On Sun, 29 Nov 2009 20:07:42 -0600, michael partensky
>> <partensky at gmail.com> wrote:
>>
>>> Thanks, Bobby.
>>>
>>> Two questions though.
>>> (1) Why some other definitions  would not work with Integrate.
>>> I know the derivative has an issue with Delta function, but what's the
>>> problem with the  Integrate given that all values of the integrand
>>> (pdf) are
>>> defined.
>>> At least, it should work if each piece is handled individually.
>>> (2) What if we  have many pieces? Should we enter all them via
>>> "Assuming"
>>> (which could be inconvenient). After all, the assumptions reproduce
>>> x-ranges
>>> that are already in  the function definition. Can we directly
>>> Integrate pdf
>>> to produce  a piecewise CDF function that will properly return for any
>>> value
>>> of x (automatically locating it in a proper piece) ?
>>>
>>> Thanks
>>> Michael
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> On Sun, Nov 29, 2009 at 7:49 PM, DrMajorBob <btreat1 at austin.rr.com>
>>> wrote:
>>>
>>>> If it's a piecewise function... use Piecewise!!
>>>>
>>>> Clear[x, f1, cdf]
>>>> f1[x_] = Piecewise[{{x^2/9, 0 <= x <= 3}}];
>>>> cdf[x_] =
>>>>  Piecewise[{{Assuming[0 < x <= 3,
>>>>      Integrate[f1@v, {v, -Infinity, x}]], 0 < x <= 3}}];
>>>>
>>>> Plot[cdf@x, {x, -5, 5}]
>>>>
>>>> Bobby
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> On Sun, 29 Nov 2009 04:12:35 -0600, michael partensky
>>>> <partensky at gmail.com>
>>>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  Hi! Teaching the continuous distributions, I needed to introduce the
>>>>> piecewise functions.
>>>>> Here is the example that did not work well:
>>>>>
>>>>> In[56]:= f1[x_] /; 0 < x <= 3 := 1/9  x ^2;
>>>>> f1[x_] := 0;
>>>>>
>>>>> Plot[f1[x],{x,-1,4}] works fine. However, the results for cdf are
>>>>> ambiguous
>>>>> In[57]:= cdf[x_] := Integrate[f1[v], {v, -\[Infinity], x}]
>>>>>
>>>>> In[59]:= cdf[1]
>>>>> Out[59]= 0
>>>>>
>>>>> I thought that may be the second definition (for some reason)
>>>>> overwrote
>>>>> the
>>>>> first, but apparently this was not the case.
>>>>>
>>>>> Then I tried using Which,
>>>>>
>>>>> f1[x_] := Which[0 < x <= 3, x^2/9, x <= 0 || x > 3, 0];
>>>>>
>>>>> Plot[f2[x], {x, -1, 4}] worked fine.
>>>>>
>>>>> However, Plotting CDF is very slow.
>>>>>
>>>>> What is the reason for the first error and how to accelerate
>>>>> (compile?)
>>>>>  the
>>>>> second?
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks
>>>>> Michael
>>>>>
>>>>> PS: I was aware about the issues with the derivatives of Piecewise
>>>>> functions, but expected  integration to be safe. What did i do wrong?
>>>>>
>>>>> On Tue, Nov 24, 2009 at 5:50 AM, Bill Rowe <readnews at sbcglobal.net>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>>  On 11/23/09 at 6:53 AM, lshifr at gmail.com (Leonid Shifrin) wrote:
>>>>>>
>>>>>> >Hi, Michael.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> >Your solution is indeed very memory -  hungry due to the mapping of
>>>>>> >Permutations, as you mentioned. The total number of permutations
>>>>>> can
>>>>>> >be easily deduced from the list of multiplicities of elements in a
>>>>>> >given partition: n!/(n1!n2!...nk!), where n1, ..., nk are
>>>>>> >multiplicities of elements, and n is the length of the partition:
>>>>>> >n=n1+...+nk. The multiplicities can be obtained by Tally. The
>>>>>> >following modification can be realistically used in a much wider
>>>>>> >region of the problem's parameter space than your original one, and
>>>>>> >may possibly serve your needs.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> >In[1]:=
>>>>>> >Clear[outsNew];
>>>>>> >outsNew[sum_, thr_] :=
>>>>>> >Total[Factorial[Length[#]]/
>>>>>> >Times @@ Factorial[Tally[#][[All, 2]]] & /@
>>>>>> >Cases[IntegerPartitions[sum, thr, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}],
>>>>>> >Table[_, {thr}]]];
>>>>>>
>>>>>> The above can be made more efficient by using the form of
>>>>>> IntegerPartitions that only generates partitions of a given
>>>>>> length. That is
>>>>>>
>>>>>> outs[sum_, thr_] :=
>>>>>>   Total[Factorial[Length[#]]/
>>>>>>      Times @@ Factorial[Tally[#][[All, 2]]] & /@
>>>>>>     IntegerPartitions[sum, {thr}, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}]]
>>>>>>
>>>>>> does the same thing a bit more efficiently
>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>
>>>> --
>>>> DrMajorBob at yahoo.com
>>>>
>>
>>
>
>

--
DrMajorBob at yahoo.com

```

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